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Ottomans

The Ottoman Dynasty – Rise of Muslims Episode 6

Based entirely on the book by Ali Mahmood titled “Muslims” –

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The Ottoman dynasty governed the Muslims and built one of the largest empires the world has ever seen

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The Geopolitics of the Black Sea

In the mounting tension between Great Powers, the Black Sea holds a particular strategic importance. It represents the waterway connecting Europe, Russia and the Middle East and is believed to host substantial reserves of hydrocarbons. It’s unique location makes it an important gateway for gas pipelines fuelling European markets and is a key theatre in the confrontation between Russia and NATO.

I’m Kasim and welcome to KJ Vids. In this video, we will look at the geopolitics of the Black Sea based on strategic reports by two analysts.

The first report is by Alessandro Gagaridis on the geopolitical monitor website published on September 19, 2018

Link – https://www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/the-geopolitics-of-the-black-sea/

Link to Mr Gagaridis’s personal website – www.strategikos.it

The second is an essay by Boris Toucas from the Centre for Strategic & International Studies published on 2nd February 2017

Link – https://www.csis.org/analysis/geostrategic-importance-black-sea-region-brief-history

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Napolean and the Siege of Acre 1799

Napolean and The Siege of Acre 1799

The Siege of Acre of 1799 was an unsuccessful French siege of the Ottoman-defended, city of Acre.

It was Napoleon’s first strategic defeat as three years previously he had been defeated at the Second Battle of Bassano.

Acre was a site of significant strategic importance due to its position on the route between Egypt and Syria.

After the loss of the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile (1798), Napoleon decided to continue his war with the Ottomans.

His aim was to gain control of the port, which would have well positioned him to challenge Britain’s influence in the East.

On 18 March, his forces encountered the city of Acre, whose 5,000-strong Ottoman Garrison was backed by two British Ships.

The British had captured a flotilla containing half of Napoleon’s guns and strengthened fortifications.

A series of French infantry assaults were repulsed, forcing Napoleon to instigate formal siege operations.

Although the French inflicted a crushing defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Mount Tabor, the Ottomans raised the siege.

By the end of April, the French had secured sufficient artillery to make a breach in Acre’s walls.

Five desperate assaults were launched by the French for 10 days, and the attackers had fought their way onto the walls.

They discovered that the defenders had built a series of equally formidableinternal fortifications.

While Acre continued to be resupplied by sea, the demoralized French were suffering shortages and the spread of disease.

Reluctantly, Napoleon accepted defeat and began the long retreat back to Egypt.

The hill, southeast of Acre, where Napoleon established his camp is still known as “Napoleon’s Hill.”

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Osman Gazi and the Birth of the Ottoman Empire

In the summer heat in the year 1071, a history-changing battle was raging in the eastern part of Anatolia.

The Seljuk Turks from Central Asia, had built a powerful empire that was clashing with the mighty Byzantines Empire.

The result of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 was a decisive Seljuk victory with the Byzantine army in tatters.

Turkish settlers created their own towns and cities, while intermarrying with the local populations, who were converting to Islam.

These states were known as “beyliks.” Each State had a leader who directed the Ghazi’s. By the 1200s, there were numerous beyliks.

One of these beyliks was that of ghazi by the name of Osman. He was born in 1258, the same year Baghdad was destroyed by the Mongols.

Legend has it that Osman once had a dream in which a tree grew out of his chest. It’s roots and branches grew to cover Asia, Europe, and Africa.

Osman’s Shaykh interpreted the dream as a sign that Osman’s descendants would have an empire that controlled the three continents.

The borders of Osman’s beylik in the town of Söğüt in northwestern Anatolia pressed right up against the Byzantine Empire.

This made being a ghazi vital and central to Osman’s life. As a result, his stature grew and ghazis rushed to join his growing state.

In addition to this, the Mongol armies were still wreaking havoc on Southwest Asia, and fleeing refugees found a new home in Osman’s beylik.

With a huge influx of warriors, Osman continued to press against the Byzantines who were at this point were in full decline.

As a result, Osman greatly expanded his territory throughout the opening decades of the 1300s. His beylik became an empire.

The Ottomans themselves called their state Devlet-i Osmaniyye, Turkish for “The State of Osman”. Known in English as “The Ottomans.”

References 

http://lostislamichistory.com/the-birth-of-the-ottoman-empire/ 
Osman’s Dream – Book by Caroline Finkel
Hourani, Albert Habib. A History Of The Arab Peoples. New York: Mjf Books, 1997. Print.
Itzkowitz, Norman. Ottoman Empire And Islamic Tradition. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1981. Print.

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