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ottoman

Modern Nations – Rise of Muslims Episode 7

Based entirely on the book by Ali Mahmood titled “Muslims” –

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In this episode, Author Ali Mahmood, looks at the emergence of Muslim nation states following the collapse of the Ottoman empire. He looks at the birth of modern Egypt, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.

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When the Ottomans almost conquered Italy

In 1480 Memet the Conqueror launched the most audacious expedition of his leadership.

He sent an army under the Grand Admiral of the Ottman Navy, Gedik Ahmet Pashato Southern Italy to capture Otranto.

The army moved inland towards Brindisi, Taranto and Lecce, but Duke Ferrante of Naples led a counterattack.

The army was pushed back to Otranto and majority of the Ottoman Army sailed away.

However, they left a group of troops stationed at Otranto whilst the Greek Island of Rhodes was being captured.

When the Island of Rhodes was abandoned, the Ottomans returned and continued fighting well into 1481.

The occupation of Italian lands so close to the main altar of Christiandom caused a great level of concern and panic.

Blame was shifted around in Italy. Venice people were acused of doing nothing and even accused of helping the Ottomans.

In spite of the retention of Rhodes, fear of the Ottomans was now at the highest.

Mehmet the Conqueror himself was said to be coming to Italy and the Pope considered fleeing to Avignon.

Instead he asked for assistance. But what saved Italy from the Ottomans was only the eventual death of Mehmet in 1481.

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The Indian Rebellion of 1857

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The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India against the British occupation of India.

Unrest had been brewing for decades, but the first sign came in Jan 1857, when a British office was burned down in protest.

Two months later, 29-year-old, Mangal Pandey, urged his fellow sepoys to rebel and wounded two officers by sword.

He was hanged for his efforts and was soon to become a martyr to the rebels’ cause.

But it was something rather unusual that sparked the Indian Mutiny of 1857.

The sepoys had been issued with a new Enfield rifle. But to use it the soldier had to bite off the end of a lubricated cartridge.

The problem was that the grease used to seal the cartridge was made from animal fat from cows and pigs.

The cow is a sacred beast to Hindus and pork is forbidden for Muslims.

The sepoys saw it as another example of a deliberate ploy to undermine their respective religions and to convert them.

On the evening of 9 May 1857, 85 Indian dissenters were thrown into jail to serve sentences from five to ten years.

The next day, Indian comrades of the imprisoned sepoys broke out of jail, revolted and hacked British soldiers to death.

The violence was swift and intense. Civilians joined the sepoys in an orgy of killing and arson.

Upon arriving in the capital, the rebels sought to restore the old Mughal Empire and have Bahadur Shah II as their leader.

But in the end the rebellion was unsuccessful and after two years the British declared an end to them.

The Indian Mutiny of 1857 showed that nothing came before the beliefs and values of the Sepoys.

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Ertuğrul Gazi And The Birth Of The Ottomans

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Diriliş Ertuğrul and the Birth of the Ottomans

Brand new KJ Vid in special collaboration with Dilly Hussain – Co-founder of 5Pillars Media – the biggest Muslim news site in Britain – 5Pillars

Millions have been inspired by the hit Turkish documentary on the founding father of the Ottoman State.

It’s very easy to understand why!

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Millions of Muslims around the world have been watching the hit Turkish show, ‘Dirilis Ertugrul’.

The show is a fictionalised historical drama series on the life and struggles of Ertugrul Gazi and the Kayi tribe.

Ertugrul Gazi was the father of Sultan Osman I, who founded the Ottoman State in 1299 CE (698 AH).

Most Ottoman chroniclers date the dynasty’s lineage back to the Kayi tribe.

The Kayis migrated from Central Asia to escape the Mongol raids in the beginning of the thirteenth century.

They eventually settled in Anatolia under the protection of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (the Western Seljuk State).

Initially led by Suleiman Shah, the father of Ertugrul Gazi and the grandfather of Sultan Osman I, the Kayis were loyal citizens of the Seljuk State.

They defended the Western frontier of the Seljuk State, which neighboured the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire.

The Kayis led by Ertugrul Gazi, fought the Byzantines, the Crusaders and the Mongols under the banner of the Seljuk State.

Ertugrul Gazi was an advocate of Muslim unity and the establishment of a State which would rule with the Divine justice of Islam.

The renowned Sufi mystic, Ibn al-Arabi and the famous Anatolian scholar, Shaykh Edebali both documented their encounters with Ertugrul Gazi.

After the gradual decline and subsequent demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, independent ‘Beyliks’ (principalities) began to emerge in Anatolia.

One of these Anatolian Beyliks in the late thirteenth century was the Kayi principality, which evolved to the Ottoman Sultanate in 1299 CE.

Ertugrul Gazi is a revered figure among Turkish Muslims because he laid the foundations for the Ottoman State.

Ertugrul Gazi died in 1281 in the city of Sogut, which was the first capital of the Ottoman State and is regarded as the birthplace of the Osmanli Dynasty.

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When the Ottoman Caliphate Saved Britain

When the Ottoman Caliphate Saved Britain

From her accession to the throne in 1558, Queen Elizabeth began seeking diplomatic, commercial and military ties with Muslim rulers.

In 1570, when it became clear that Protestant England would not return to the Catholic faith, the pope excommunicated Elizabeth and called for her to be stripped of her crown.

Soon the might of Catholic Spain was against her, an invasion was imminent.

English merchants were prohibited from trading with the rich markets of the Spanish Netherlands.

Economic and political isolation threatened to destroy the newly Protestant country.

Elizabeth responded by reaching out to the Ottoman Caliphate. Spain’s only rival was the Ottoman Empire ruled by Sultan Murad III.

The Ottomans had been fighting the Hapsburgs for decades, conquering parts of Hungary.

Elizabeth hoped that an alliance with the Sultan would provide much needed relief from Spanish military aggression and enable her merchants to tap into the lucrative markets of the East.

The Caliphate was far more powerful than Elizabeth’s little Island nation floating in the soggy mists off Europe.

Elizabeth wanted to explore her new trade alliances, but couldn’t afford to finance them. Her response was to exploit the obscure commercial innovation – joint stock companies.

The capital from the companies was used to fund the costs of commercial voyages.

Elizabeth enthusiastically backed the Muscovy company which traded with Persia and went on to inspire the formation of a company that traded with the Ottomans and the East India Company which would eventually conquer India.

In the 1580s she signed a commercial agreement with the Ottomans that would last over 300 years granting her merchants free commercial access to Ottoman lands.

As money poured in, Elizabeth began writing letters to her Muslim counterparts extolling the benefits of reciprocal trade.

She wrote as a supplicant, calling Murad “The most mighty ruler of the Kingdom of Turkey, sole and above all, and most sovereign monarch of the East Empire.”

She also played on their mutual hostility to Catholicism, describing herself as “the most invincible and most mighty defender of the Christian faith against all kind of idolatries.”

Thousands of English traders crossed many of today’s regions, like Aleppo and Mosul which were far safer than they would have been on a journey through Catholic Europe where they risked falling into the hands of the Inquisition.

Some Englishman even converted to Islam such as Samson Rowlie, a Norfolk merchant who became Hassan Aga.

English aristocrats delighted in the silks and spices of the East, exchanged it for munitions that were shipped out to Turkey.

The sugar, silks, carpets and spices transformed what the English ate, how they decorated their homes and how they dressed.

Despite the commercial success, the British economy was unable to sustains its reliance on far-flung trade.

After Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1604, the new King, James I, signed a peace treaty with Spain ending England’s exile.

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