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Africa

Is China colonising Africa?

China’s economic interests in Africa is one of the most recognised and talked about international engagements. Earlier this month, Xi Jinping pledged to provide Africa $60BN over the next 8 years.

But the portrayal of China’s investments in Africa have been particularly negative in the West with headlines such as “Is China Good or Bad for Africa?” China in Africa: Collaboration or Colonialism?

So, is China colonising Africa in a new form of colonialism? What do African’s think? And what do the facts say? I’m Kasim, this is KJ Vids and in this video, we will look at China’s investments in Africa.

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Meet Ayuba Suleiman Diallo – The Fortunate Slave

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Through the Atlantic slave trade, many Africans were forced into the US and we seldom hear about some of their Muslim backgrounds.

One such person is Ayuba Suleiman Diallo. He was from eastern Senegal, born to a family of religious leaders.

He memorized the entire Quran, was an expert in Maliki fiqh and possessed an immaculate intelligence.

Despite his accomplishments and status in his homeland, he like so many others in Africa, was a victim to the Atlantic slave trade.
Enemies captured him, shaved his beard and sold him to work on a tobacco plantation after his ship landed at Annapolis, Maryland in 1731.

Throughout this difficult time, Diallo upheld his daily prayers and Islamic diet. He ran from the family who owned him because praying became difficult.

When the children of the family would see him pray, they threw dirt on him and mocked him. But soon after fleeing, Diallo was again captured and this time, taken to prison.

This is where Diallo met English lawyer Thomas Bluett. Diallo’s piety, literacy, intelligence, and adherence to faith impressed Bluett, who ended up befriending him.

Diallo wrote a letter in Arabic to send to his father, and it travelled from Annapolis to England.

Eventually, this letter landed in the hands of James Oglethorpe, the founder of the Georgia colony.

He was touched by the struggles presented in the letter, and he subsequently sent the amount needed to purchase Diallo’s freedom and bring him to England in 1733.

After his arrival to England, he debated theology with the Christian priests and bishops, and they joined the already lengthy list of people who Diallo impressed with his intelligence, monotheism, and morality.

Diallo, after suffering through such difficulties as becoming separated from his family, sold into the slave trade, forced to work in horrid conditions, humiliated by children, and imprisoned, was finally recognized as an equal.

In 1734, Diallo safely returned back to his home. His father died, one of his wives remarried because she thought he passed, and his home was wrecked due to war.

However, he again overcame hardship, lift himself up, and was able to live a prosperous life.

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Plastic in Oceans – 5 Fast Facts

Our oceans are slowly turning into a plastic soup and the effects on ocean life are chilling. Big pieces of plastic are choking and entangling turtles and seabirds and tiny pieces are clogging the stomachs of creatures who mistake it for food, from tiny zooplankton to whales.

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The History of Islam in Nigeria

The Nigerian region has had a long rich history. Evidence of human inhabitation has been found as far back as 9000 BCE.

The spread of Islam in Nigeria dates to the eleventh century when it first appeared in Borno in the northeast of the country.

Later Islam emerged in Hausaland in the northwest and its influence was evident in Kano and Katsina

Islam was for quite some time the religion of the court and commerce, and was spread peacefully by Muslim clerics and traders

Increasingly, trans-Saharan trade came to be conducted by Muslims.

In the second half of the eighteenth century a rapid expansion took place in western Africa

The Fulani cattle-driving people, who had settled and adopted Islam, played a central role.

In northern Nigeria, the Fulani scholar Uthman dan Fodio launched a jihad in 1804 that lasted for six years,

aiming to revive and purify Islam, to eliminate syncretist beliefs and rituals, to remove all innovations contrary to the Koran and sharia, and to encourage less devout Muslims to return to orthodox and pure Islam.

It also united the Hausa states under sharia law.

In 1812 the Hausa dynasties became part of the Sultantae of Sokoto.

It was one of the largest empires in Africa during the 19th century.

The Sokoto Caliphate ended with partition in 1903 when the British incorporated it into the colony of Nigeria and the Sultan’s power was transferred to the High Commissioner

However, many aspects of the caliphate structure, including the Islamic legal system, were retained and brought forward into the colonial period.

Under British Rule, Christianity became established in the South.

Missionaries established schools which offered a strong western education.

One of the characteristics of British colonisation was the practise of using local sympatherisers to control the colonial population

Supporetive locals allows the British to expand their control in many states with a  relatively small British population

Such behaviour created social dvisions which made the colonies easier to managed but created conditions for potential conflict.

The Shari’ah was practised in the Northern regions but steadily reduced its influence.

By the time the British were preparing to grant Nigeria independence, the jurisdiction of Shairah law was reduced to an appeals court for personal issues between Muslims.

Omar Mukhtar – The Lion of the Desert

In 1911, Italy took Libya from the Ottoman Caliphate and formed the colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania

In North Africa, the leaders of the Senusiyyah, joined forces with the Ottomans and used all their strength to start up a new resistance against the French and Italian colonial invasion.

The Libyan national struggle against Italy was led by Omar Mukhtar, a Senussi Sufi teacher

Omar Mukhtar was born in eastern Cyrenaica, Al Butnan District, in the village of East Janzur east of Tobruk.

He had studied at an earlier Senussi university, in the town of Al-Jaghbub, the main Senussi redoubt, on the Libyan border with Egypt.

A teacher of the Qur’an by profession, Mukhtar was also skilled in the strategies and tactics of desert warfare.

He knew local geography well and used that knowledge to advantage in battles against the Italians,

Mukhtar repeatedly led his small, highly alert groups in successful attacks against the Italians,

Mukhtar’s men skillfully attacked outposts, ambushed troops, and cut lines of supply and communication.

The Italian army was left astonished and embarrassed by his guerrilla tactics.

Omar Mukhtar led the rebellion against Italian occupation of Libya for 20 years until his capture at the old age of 70.

Mukhtar was tried, convicted, and sentenced to be executed by hanging [by Italians] in a public place.

When the judge said: “Italy’s martial law court has decided for your execution”. In response Omar Mukhtar replied: “The ruling and decision is Allah’s alone. Your fake and fabricated ruling has no worth to it… To Allah we belong and to him we shall return”.

Rome controlled Libya as a colonial possession from 1911 until the fall of fascist Italy in 1943

Indonesian Version

https://youtu.be/TbQPg4-Vcuk

20 Distressing Images of Colonialism in the Congo

 

“The Vice talked to the director of the International Slavery Museum about how the power of shocking images can put an end to colonial rule.” The original article can be found on the VICE

1904. The Congo. A man sits on a porch, staring intensely at the severed foot and hand of a child. Nsala, the man in the picture, was photographed by English missionary Alice Seeley Harris after he arrived at her mission clutching a parcel that contained what was left of his five-year-old daughter. She’d been killed and dismembered as a punishment when his village failed to meet the rubber quotas demanded by the imperial regime.  (Copyright Anti-Slavery International and Autograph ABP)

Alice Seeley Harris, Manacled members of a chain gang at Bauliri. A common punishment for not paying taxes, Congo Free State, c. 1904. Courtesy Anti-Slavery International / Autograph

ABP Set of children who where used in history as plant harvesters

A group of Bongwonga rubber workers

Lomboto shot in wrist and hand by a rubber concession sentry and permanently disabled as a result, early 1900s copy.

History of Africa Colonialism, 19th century, European colonizer carried in a hammock by 4 African porters (PRISMA ARCHIVO / Alamy Stock Photo)

Children with their hands cut off for punishment Alice Seeley Harris, Congo Free State, c. 1904. Courtesy Anti-Slavery International / Autograph ABP

Alice Seeley Harris, Three head sentries of the ABIR with a prisoner, Congo Free State, c.1904. Courtesy Anti-Slavery International / Autograph ABP

Alice Seeley Harris, Isekausu whose hand was chopped off by Ikombi, one of the rubber concession’s sentries, Congo Free State, c. 1904. Courtesy Anti-Slavery International / Autograph ABP

Mutilated child – Belgian Congo – Image by Alice Seeley Harris

Local Congolese king kuba. Their own tribal chiefs prospered by offering their tribe members as slaves

Congo tribe members worked for the Belgium plantations to beat their own countrymen

Punishment in the sun

Artists Depiction of life in the Belgian congo

Alice Seeley With a group of congo men

Alice Seeley 1908, Group lined up of congo slaves

Missionaries and anti-slavery campaigners, reverend John Haris and Mrs Alice Seely- Harris camping in the Congo in the Upper Kasai.

Permenant Scars from beatings

The 1994 Rwandan Genocide

It was an unparalleled modern genocide, an attempt to exterminate an entire people in 100 days. And in the years that followed the killing of some 800,000 Rwandans in 1994, political leaders have expressed their regret at an international failure to stop the violence.

Bill Clinton, United States president at the time, admitted last year that if the West had intervened earlier to stop the killing, mostly by Hutus against Tutsis, 300,000 lives could have been saved.

The violence began with the killing of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, when his plane was shot down above Kigali airport on 6 April. Within hours, violence spread from the capital across the country, and did not subside until three months later.

Ahead of the 20th anniversary of the genocide, last week declassified diplomatic cables were released by the National Security Archive at George Washington University which showed that the US, Britain and the United Nations were explicitly warned that a “new bloodbath” was imminent in Rwanda.

Rather than increasing the power of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (Unamir), the governments of John Major in Britain and President Clinton in the US were considering rowing back the peacekeeping effort, according to the cables.

The diplomatic messages showed that on 25 February 1994, the Belgian foreign ministry had expressed “alarm” at the worsening security situation in Kigali. Lode Willems, the Belgian ministry’s chief of staff, wrote to Paul Noterdaeme, the country’s ambassador to the UN, describing Rwanda’s “significant deterioration” and asking for greater UN powers to act. The UN mission in the country could not “firmly maintain public order” and had “a serious credibility problem”, Willems added.

But in reply Noterdaeme said that both the US and UK were opposed to action. “Not only are the United States and the United Kingdom against it, they may even, according to their delegations, withdraw Unamir altogether in case of difficulties… There is a financial logic behind this: the United States never wanted more than 500 men for Unamir,” wrote Noterdaeme. The UN, he added, was against intervention in the former Belgian colony and “not inclined to adjust the rules of engagement”.

Three months after the cables were sent, in May, UN members agreed to increase the contingent of troops to 5,000. They were not deployed for a further six months – by which time the killing had already stopped.

While John Major defended his decision not to send troops to Rwanda – he told MPs in July 1994 it was “simply not practicable” for the UN Security Council to become the “policeman of every part of the world” – Mr Clinton was apologetic on a visit to the country in 1998. “We did not act quickly enough after the killing began,” he said.

“We should not have allowed the refugee camps to become safe havens for the killers. We did not immediately call these crimes by their rightful name: genocide.” Next month a series of events will be held to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the genocide. Kwibuka20, translated as “remember20” asks the world to ensure that “such an atrocity can never happen again”.

Mansa Musa – The Richest Man That Ever Lived

Meet Mansa Musa – The Richest Muslim That Ever Lived

According to historians, the richest man to have ever lived was a Malian Muslim named Mansa Musa

With an inflation adjusted fortune of $400 billion, Mansa Musa I would have been considerably richer than the world’s current richest man, Carlos Slim, who ranks in 22nd place with a relatively paltry $68 billion.

His country’s production of more than half the world’s supply of salt and gold contributed to Musa’s vast wealth, which he used to build large mosques that still stand today.

Musa ruled over Mali from 1312 till 1337 and caught the attention of Europeans and Arabs after his renown Hajj to Mecca in 1324.

As a devoted Muslim, Mansa Musa prepared his pilgrimage soon after he took his position from Abu Bakri II in 1312.

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Morocco – The world’s largest cannabis producer

Morocco – The world’s largest cannabis producer

Morocco has remained the world’s largest producer of cannabis, according to a report released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) last week.

The annual “World Drug Report 2017” showed that the area of ​​cultivation of cannabis in Morocco reached 47,000 hectares in 2015. Some 38,000 tonnes of cannabis was being produced in the kingdom annually. The majority of which is exported to Europe and other North African states.

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Britain’s War on Uganda’s Milton Obote

Source: Crimes of Britain

Britain saw Uganda as its playground in Africa, and continued to loot the country even after independence in 1962. Sapping the wealth of nations even when they are perceived to be sovereign has become a British tradition. The British deep down have never gotten over the loss of the lands they have occupied. For instance, when the US invaded Grenada in 1983, the British were furious the Americans hadn’t consulted them when it came to invading a ‘Commonwealth’ country [1].

Milton Obote who led the Ugandan people to independence in 1962 from British rule had plans to nationalise banks, agricultural estates, mines, and manufacturing industry – all key sectors of Uganda’s economy that happened to still be controlled by more than eighty British companies in 1970 [2]. Instead of submitting to the Ugandan government policy, these colonial looters ran to the British government to oppose Obote’s nationalisation plan. At this time Britain was supporting racist apartheid rule in South Africa and ‘South Rhodesia’, Obote along with anti-colonial and pan-Africanist Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah (whom the British also helped overthrow) pressured Britain to end their military sales and cease their support for these regimes [3]. Uganda’s nationalisation policy coupled with a pan-Africanist policy against racism in Africa threatened British interests. To deal with Obote, MI6 planned to assassinate Obote as an alternative to a coup in 1969 to preempt the nationalisation programme, when this failed they backed his overthrowing [4/5]. In 1971 he was finally removed and Idi Amin came to power, and in typical western fashion when Amin started to threaten western interests they began to focus on human rights abuses in the country.

The British press also supported the overthrowing of Obote and were only to happy to demonise him. Something that’s all to familiar given the media in Britain splashing the lynching of Gaddafi over their front pages [6]. The Guardian for instance proclaimed Obote was running a police state [7]:

“By the end Obote was ruling over a police state, less efficiently organised than those of some European countries, but as his political hold diminished his police hold increased through a network of informers, secret arrests and prisoners held without trial.” – the Guardian, 1971.

Britain has shown time and time again, from Uganda to ‘Malaya’ and most recently Libya that it operates in the interest of protecting its economic and strategic interests without a care for the sovereignty of nations nor the millions upon millions it brings misery to.

  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/25/newsid_3207000/3207509.stm
  2. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Modes-British-Imperial-Control-Africa/dp/1443828823
  3. http://www.independent.co.ug/the-last-word/the-last-word/6639-obotes-legacy-murdered-at-his-memorial
  4. http://www.redpepper.org.uk/British-State-Terror/
  5. http://www.monitor.co.ug/SpecialReports/ugandaat50/The-journey-to-Obote-s-ouster/-/1370466/1490896/-/3wbl9vz/-/index.html
  6. https://storify.com/public/templates/slideshow/index.html?src=//storify.com/abcnews/gaddafis-death-on-frontpages#1
  7. http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1971/jan/26/fromthearchive
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