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Month: June 2018


The philosophy of science is a field of study that attempts to address how we can derive knowledge from scientific experiments and empirical data. In this video we will prove to you why scientific facts are not 100% and there is always the possibility of doubt.

The first problem with in the philosophy of science is induction: Induction is a thinking process where one makes conclusions by moving from the particular to the general. Arguments based on induction can range in probability from very low to very high, but always less than 100%. Here is an example of induction:

“I have observed that punching a boxing bag properly with protective gloves never causes injury. Therefore no one will be injured using a boxing bag.”

As can be seen from the example above, induction faces a key problem which is the inability to guarantee the conclusion, because a sweeping generalisation cannot be made from a limited number of observations. The best it can provide are probabilities, ranging from low to very high. In the aforementioned example the person who made the statement could not logically prove that the next person to punch a boxing bag will not get injured.

Therefore, the problem with induction is that it can’t produce certainty. This issue was raised by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume in his book, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Hume argued that inductive reasoning can never produce certainty. He concluded that moving from a limited set of observed phenomena to making conclusions for an unlimited set of observed phenomena is beyond the present testimony of the senses, and the records of our memory.

The second problem with in the philosophy of science is Empiricism: Empiricism claims that we have no source of knowledge in a subject or for the concepts we use in a subject other than sense experience. Philosopher Elliot Sober in his essay Empiricism explains the empiricist’s thesis:

“Empiricists deny that it is ever rationally obligatory to believe that theories provide true descriptions of an unobservable reality…For an empiricist, if a theory is logically consistent, observations are the only source of information about whether the theory is empirically adequate.”
Empiricism suffers from limitations and logical problems. The main problem with empiricism is that it can only base its conclusions on observed realities and cannot make conclusions on unobserved realities. Elliot Sober explains this problem:

“Empiricists need to address problems in the philosophy of perception. The most obvious first stab at saying what seeing an object involves is to describe the passage of light from the object into the eyes, with the result that a visual experience occurs. However, the invisibility of white cats in snowstorms and the fact that we see silhouettes (like the moon during an eclipse) shows that this is neither sufficient nor necessary.”

Further exploring Sober’s example, imagine you observe a white cat walking outside of a house towards the direction of an oncoming snowstorm; you can see the cat walking up to the snowstorm …

The Geopolitics of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has an estimated population of 32 million, the 40th largest in the world and 6th largest in the Arab world.

Its territory is roughly the size of Turkey, France, Germany and Japan put together.

But much of this territory is desert. Saudi Arabia’s arable land per capita, according to the World Bank, is just 0.1 hectares per person.

The Saudi state is an artefact of Western imperialism, growing out of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.

Ever since, Saudi has fallen prey to sectarian politics and have relied on the support from Britain and the US.

Looking out from Riyadh, the Saudi leadership sees potential border-region threats in almost every direction.

During the Cold war they tried to combat the Shiite Iranians, the Pan Arab Nasserites in Egypt and the Ba’athists in Iraq.

Today Saudi Arabia attempts to project its influence in various ways in countries like Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Syria Lebanon and Yemen.

Along its maritime borders the Saudis are insecure, a result of the narrowness of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

Saudi Arabia is outnumbered in the Gulf even just by the Kuwaitis, Qataris, and Emiratis, with 15 million people combined.

Saudi is also worried about threats from within. Foreign-born labourers outnumbercitizens in many of these Gulf States.

Finally, with a tribalistic power structure and large divided Royal family, Saudi’s leaders constantly face threats from their own blood.

Without the support for Saudi Arabia from an outside power like the US, Saudi would barely be able to survive.

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Gaza Strip border crisis

Gaza Strip border fence only to be met with live gunfire from the Israeli side. The deadly events left dozens of dead, but it also highlights just how much, and simultaneously how little, has changed over the years.

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BAKU – Thousands of Palestinians attempted to cross the Israel

Crypto by Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0

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New Weapon Designed By Russian Inventor Demonstrating Of Destroying US, Israel and Russian Tanks

New secret weapon designed by Russian inventor, Semenov Dahir Kurmanbievich demonstrating of destroying US, Israel and Russian tanks.

Chinese Army training shooting cannon round without cannon: https://youtu.be/Mumt5M0gusE

Note: This video has been uploaded for education and entertainment purposes only and I do NOT own or support any party.

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Credits: https://youtu.be/KgQAfNP0RNA…

Baghdad and the Paper-Making Industry

Paper seems such an ordinary product today, but it has been fundemental to modern civilisation. 1,100 years ago people were manufacturing paper in Baghdad in Muslim Civilisation.

It is believed that the secrets of Chinese paper making were passed on to the people of Baghdad around the year 751.

Very quickly, the art of paper-making was refined and transformed into mass production by the mills of Baghdad. Some of the techniques employed in Baghdad included the use of linen as a substitute for thr bark of the mulberry which the Chinese used. This involved a more refined and improved method of production.

This development facilitated the build of many paper mills in Baghdad from where the industry spread to Damascus which became the major source of supply of paper to Europe; and various other places around the world.

After the industry fllourished in Iraq, Syria and Palestine, it spread west. The first paper mill in Africa was built in Egypt around 850; then a paper mill was built in Morocco from where it reached Spain in 950. In 1293 the first paper mill in Bologna was set up. The first use of paper in England did not come until 1309, then Germany in the late stages of the 14th century.

Read More: www.muslimheritage.com/article/beginning-paper-industry

The tools and technique of making paper leaf depicted in a volume illustrating crafts and trades, Kashmir (Source) – British Library: “Making Islamic-style paper

Two folio pages (239b – 241b ) of the manuscript Or. 298 at Leiden University Library, which is probably the oldest known Arabic manuscript on paper (dated Dhu al-Qa`da 252 (866 CE). Arabic, paper, 241 ff., upright script (with application of ihmal), bound in a full-leather standard binding. The present volume contains an incomplete copy of Gharib al-Hadith, by Abu `Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallam al-Baghdadi (d. 223 H/837 CE). (SourceMuslim Heritage: “Filling the Gap in the History of Pre-Modern Industry: 1000 Years of Missing Islamic Industry” by Professor Salim Al-Hassani

[Perron, Nicolas.] Al-Azhar al-badi’a fi ‘ilm al-tabi’a. Translated by Yuhanna ‘Anturi. Bulaq, 1254 [1838]. Muslim Heritage: “Manuscripts and printing in the spread of Muslim science” by Geoffrey Roper

Another interesting book published by Ibrahim Muteferrika Press, was a history of the discovery of America. Printed towards the beginning of April, 1730, it is the first Islamic printed book with figural illustrations. Based partly on Latin sources, the History of the West Indies contains an introduction on the geographical views of ancient writers -showing their ignorance of the New World -and then gives an account of the Spanish discoveries, including fabulous stories of the flora and fauna of the New World, illustrated by 13 prints and four maps, engraved by Ibrahim.


Muslim Heritage: “Arabic and the Art of Printing” by Saudi Aramco World Magazine

Taken from http://1001inventions.com/paper…

Should Erdogan Cut Ties with Russia and Israel?

Spooly – World’s First Magnetic Charging Cables

The most portable full-length charging cables ever. Spooly makes on-the-go charging a breeze. Live on Kickstarter – https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/644501570/spooly-the-ultimate-charging-cables…

Will Gwadar be the Next Dubai?

Will Gwadar be the next Dubai?

The Gwadar port in Pakistan is going through a historical economic transformation. But what will it look like after it’s done? Is it going through a similar journey as Dubai’s?

Want to learn more?
Visit: http://www.chinapakinvestment.com


Enquire now: http://oneinvestments.co.uk/ipclaunch/…

A Glimpse of Pakistan

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Watch this stunning video that illustrates the culture and life of Pakistan. This video was submitted to us by Sham Ismail. You can follow his YouTube channel here – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLvDIJ5jUZ2ZwBjwNAZjhSA

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Why the GWADAR PORT in Pakistan is changing the world’s geo-political landscape

Why a fishing town in Pakistan is changing the world’s geo-political landscape!

A small fishing town in the South-West of Pakistan, Gwadar is the gateway city of China’s $62 Billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor.

A deep sea port strategically located in the Indian Ocean at the opening of the Strait of Hormuz.

Pakistan leased Gwadar Port to China in 2015 as part of a $62 Billion deal.

China also acquired 22,000 acres of land adjoining the port in Gwadar which has been declared a Special Economic Zone.

A 1224 Kilometre highway is being built from China ending in Gwadar emulating the ancient Silk Road

Gwadar will link the Silk Road on land with the Maritime Silk Road

The new Silk Road reduces shipping times for Chinese goods to the Middle-East, Africa and Europe by up to 80%.

Gwadar is being developed under the model of China’s Shenzhen through the establishment of Special Economic Zones.

Shenzhen was amongst the fastest growing cities in the world growing from a population of 30,000 in 1979 to 10 Million in 2017 with a GDP of $294 Billion!

Zhang Baozhong, the Chairman of China Overseas Port Holding Company said “China plan to spend $4.5 billion on developing Gwadar.”

In November 2016 the first cargo travelled the Silk Road from Kashgar in China to Gwadar and shipped out from Gwadar to the Middle-East and Africa.

Currently there are some 2000 Chinese personnel in Gwadar this number is projected to grow up to 500,000 by 2023.

There is a geo-political shift happening in the world and Gwadar is at the heart of this.

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